Serious Health Rilks of Plastic Bottles

The Truth About Toxic Chemicals Leaching From Plastic Bottles

What scientists just learned about synthetic endocrine-disruptors (hormone) chemicals in plastic is pretty scary. Bottled water is not the healthy choice we've been led to believe.

Concerned about tap water quality, some consumers turn to bottled water, hoping to find a guarantee of safety and quality. But the reality is very different from this expectation: all bottled waters tested by the Environmental Working Group (EWG) contained some toxic chemical contaminants that can disrupt the endocrine system and Arrhythmia (heart attacks in women), ADHD, allergic reactions, brain damage and development problems in children, breast cancer, prostate cancer, anxiety in children, depression, asthma in children, diabetes, down syndrome, erectile dysfunction, hair loss, heart disease, hormone system disruption, immune system problems, learning and behavioral problems in children, migraine, obesity,ovarian dysfunction, prostate gland problems, pyometra (a uterine infection), early in girls, reproductive development problems, decreased sperm counts, sex hormones changes in men, thyroid hormone level problems, and chromosome damage in woman

Despite numerous scientific studies showing BPA-free plastic still poses risks to human health, the plastic industry is waging a “Big Tobacco” style campaign to bury the evidence.

Read this  new investigative report by Mother Jones investigative journalist Mariah Blake on bisphenol A (BPA) and how the plastic and chemical industries are doing all they can to cover up, hide and falsify any evidence of the dangers of BPA and other common - and potentially equally or more dangerous - BPA replacements such as Tritan. read more here... and view the two youtube videos here:

Video: Are Any Plastics Safe? Industry Tries to Hide Scary New Evidence on BPA-Free Containers (1/2)

Video: Are Any Plastics Safe? Industry Tries to Hide Scary New Evidence on BPA-Free Containers (2/2)

Concerned about tap water quality, some consumers turn to bottled water, hoping to find a guarantee of safety and quality. But the reality is very different from this expectation: all bottled waters tested by the Environmental Working Group (EWG) contained some chemical contaminants.

BPA Replacement Also Alters Hormones

The study by University of Texas scientists is the first to link low concentrations of bisphenol S (BPS) – a bisphenol A (BPA) alternative – to disruption of estrogen, spurring concern that it might harm human health.

Researchers exposed rat cells to levels of BPS that are within the range people are exposed to. And, just like BPA, the compound interfered with how cells respond to natural estrogen, which is vital for reproduction and other functions.

Previous studies already have shown BPS mimics estrogen, but the new study advances that by showing it can alter the hormone at low doses people are exposed to.

“People automatically think low doses do less than high doses,” said Cheryl Watson, a University of Texas biochemistry professor and lead author of the study published in Environmental Health Perspectives. “But both natural hormones and unnatural ones like [BPS] can have effects at surprisingly low doses.” Read more here....

Health risks linked to plastic which release estrogenic chemicals include:

A
rrhythmia (heart attacks in women), ADHD, allergic reactions, brain damage and development problems in children, breast cancer, prostate cancer, anxiety in children, depression, asthma in children, diabetes, down syndrome, erectile dysfunction, hair loss, heart disease, hormone system disruption, immune system problems, learning and behavioral problems in children, migraine, obesity,ovarian dysfunction, prostate gland problems, pyometra (a uterine infection), early in girls, reproductive development problems, decreased sperm counts, tooth decay, Sex hormones changes in men, thyroid hormone level problems, and chromosome damage in woman.

Latest Study On Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) In Plastic Bottled Waters

Widespread consumer demand for plastic products that are free of the hormone-disrupting chemical bisphenol-A (BPA) has led to some significant positive changes in the way that food, beverage and water containers are manufactured. But a new study out of Germany has found that thousands of other potentially harmful chemicals are still leeching from plastic products into food and beverages, including an endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) known as di(2-ethylhexyl) fumarate, or DEHF, that is completely unregulated.

Martin Wagner and his colleague, Jorg Oehlmann, from the Goethe University Frankfurt, in conjunction with a team of researchers from the German Federal Institute of Hydrology, learned this after conducting tests on different bottled water products to look for the presence of EDCs. Using an advanced combination of bioassay work and high-resolution mass spectrometry, the team identified some 24,520 different chemicals present in the tested water.

But of major concern, and the apparent underpinning of the study's findings, was DEHF, a plasticizer chemical that is used to make plastic bottles more flexible. According to reports, DEHF was clearly identified in the tested water as the most consistent and obvious culprit causing anti-estrogenic activity. Despite trace amounts of more than 24,000 other potentially damaging chemicals, DEHF stood out as the only possible EDC capable of inducing this particular observed activity, a highly concerning observation.

The study's published abstract explains that 13 of the 18 bottled water products tested exhibited "significant" anti-estrogenic activity, while 16 of the 18 samples were found to inhibit the body's androgen receptors by an astounding 90 percent. Additionally, the other 24,520 chemical traces besides DEHF were also identified as exhibiting antagonistic activity, which means that they, too, are detrimental to the body's hormonal system.

Many thousands of endocrine-disrupting chemicals used in plastic production prove material unsafe

But DEHF is apparently not alone in causing significant damage to the endocrine system, as the team was unable to identify this chemical as being specifically anti-androgenic. What this suggests is that there is some other chemical, or chemical combination, being leeched into bottled water that is interfering with the body's chemical signaling system, which is, of course, responsible for hormone production and use within the body.

"We confirmed the identity and biological activity of DEHF and additional isomers of dioctyl fumarate and maleate using authentic standards," report the researchers. "Since DEHF is anti-estrogenic but not anti-androgenic we conclude that additional, yet unidentified EDCs must contribute to the antagonistic effect of bottled water."

So while these specific findings concerning DEHF are groundbreaking, the overall conclusion to be drawn from this research is that far more study is needed to determine the types of chemicals that are being leeched from plastic into our food and water, not to mention the extent of this leeching. And since the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the rest of the three-letter government agencies will surely never get around to conducting this important research, independent science will simply have to take up the charge.

"This work is a 'tour de force' in identification of endocrine disruptors in packaged materials," says Bruce Blumberg from the University of California, Irvine, as quoted by Chemistry World. This type of analysis, he adds, "will be very important for our future understanding of what chemicals we are routinely exposed to and which of these pose hazards of being endocrine disruptors."

You can read the full study abstract here: http://www.plosone.org

In the meantime, conscious consumers can avoid plastic containers whenever possible and simply use glass or stainless steel containers instead to avoid these unknown risks.

Sources for this article include:

http://www.plosone.org
http://www.rsc.org
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com

Republished from NaturalNews

Beverages Bottled in PET Plastic Not Safe to Drink PET 1

A classification system called the Resin Identification Code, which is the number printed on the bottom of most plastic bottles and food containers, describes what kind of plastic resin the product is made out of.

Plastic #1: Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)

Typically used to make bottles for soft drinks, water, juice, mouthwash, sports drinks and containers for condiments like ketchup, salad dressing, jelly and jam, PET is considered safe, but it actually leach the toxic chemicals, which is used during its manufacture.

Toxic risk of #1: Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) bottled water:

New evidence that PET drink bottles can leach substances into the contents that mimic the sex hormone estrogen – phthalates and antimony – has put PET bottles in the crosshairs also of scientists worried about their health safety and accumulating evidence that the contents of PET bottles can exhibit estrogenic activity has come as a surprise. read more...

Studies at the University of Heidelberg - Studies in Europe and Canada

One study that looked at 63 brands of bottled water produced in Europe and Canada found concentrations of antimony antimony that were more than 100 times the typical level found in clean groundwater (2 parts per trillion).

It also found that the longer a bottle of water sits on a shelf -- in a grocery store or your refrigerator -- the greater the dose of antimony present. It is believed that the amount of antimony leeching from these PET bottles differs based on exposure to sunlight, higher temperatures, and varying pH levels.

Brominated compounds have also been found to leach into PET bottles. Bromine is known to act as a central nervous system depressant, and can trigger a number of psychological symptoms such as acute paranoia and other psychotic symptoms.

The following research is by world expert Dr William Shotyk - who has vowed never to drink bottled water again - “I don’t want to shock people but here’s what I know: Antimony is being continuously released into bottled drinking water. The water in PET bottles is contaminated”. In small amounts, antimony poisoning causes headaches, dizziness, and depression. Larger doses produce violent and frequent vomiting, and may lead to death within a few days.

Antimony finds its way into water by ‘leaching’ from the plastic in the same way that water absorbs flavour from a tea bag.
read study...

Studies at the Environmental Working Group (EWG)

An Environmental Working Group investigation found that the recycling code 1 PET plastics contain numerous chemical additives, numerous manufacturing impurities and degradation byproducts, with 90 potential contaminants that can leach into bottled water.

Contaminants Found In Tested Bottled water Samples Include: reference

  • Toxic disinfection byproducts (DBPs)
    Trihalomethanes (THMs) - chloroform (a carcinogen), bromoform, bromodichloromethane (a carcinogen), and chlorodibromomethane.
  • Haloacetic acids which are genotoxic, carcinogenic and also linked to developmental defects in embryos - dichloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic acid
  • Fluoride
  • Nitrate which can cause methemoglobinemia, or blue-baby syndrome in infants and also linked to nervous system defects, miscarriage, endocrine-disrupting effects, premature birth, disrupting the functioning of thyroid hormones, impaired growth of babies in utero, and various birth defects.
  • Ammonia which can trigger asthma attacks
  • Acetaminophen (Tylenol)
  • Caffeine
  • Plastic/industrial synthetic chemicals - 2-methyl-1-propene, 3-methyl pentane, isobutane, methylcyclopentane, octane, hexane, toluene and acetaldehyde
  • Acetaldehyde which pose a risk for irritation of the digestive tract, liver damage, genetic mutations and cancer, and a probable human carcinogen
  • Hexane - health impacts associated with toluene include cardiovascular or blood toxicity, developmental toxicity, gastrointestinal or liver toxicity, immunotoxicity, kidney toxicity, neurotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, respiratory toxicity, and skin sensitivity
  • Bacterial contamination - High HPC signal could indicate unsanitary conditions at the bottled water plant or bottled water collection site, possibly associated with dirty equipment. In addition to heterotrophic plate count, one brand was also positive for total coliform, which could indicate potential exposure of the bottled water sources to fecal contamination
  • Arsenic - Potential health impacts associated with arsenic include cancer, cardiovascular or blood toxicity, developmental toxicity, endocrine toxicity, gastrointestinal or liver toxicity, kidney toxicity, neurotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, respiratory toxicity, and skin sensitivity
  • Radioactivity - In humans and animals exposure to radioactivity causes a wide range of health effects, including lung, bone, liver, kidney and brain tumors, leukemia, skin damage, and blood damage. Two specific radiological contaminants were detected in bottled waters tested, Radium-228 and Strontium-90, and both are known cancer-causing elements.
  • Boron - In animal studies, ingestion of boron has been linked with toxicity to male reproductive tract (testicular lesions) and developmental toxicity.

EWG investigation found chemical contamination in all bottled waters tested. The quality of the samples varied significantly, with some bottled waters exposing consumers to unexpectedly high pollution load. EWG study highlighted that weak FDA regulations are unable to ensure bottled water quality that consumers expect. Bottled water is not a miracle product - it is subjected to the same environmental contamination pressures as tap water. In the information provided by the EPA,

Whether it travels through a pipe to your home or comes packaged in a bottle... all our drinking water comes from similar sources, either from sources we can see, such as rivers and lakes, or from sources we can't see, such as underground aquifers (EPA 2005a).

While it is unclear how many of these chemicals actually do leach from the plastic into the water, numerous scientific studies have shown that some definitely can. They include formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and toxic antimony

Phthalates
Phthalates are softening agents added to some plastics to make them pliable. A growing literature links phthalate exposure to abnormal development of the reproductive system and to obesity, triggering recent legislative and governmental actions to limit phthalates in consumer products in the United States, Canada, Australia and European Union.

In an investigation of 71 commercial brands of water, all sold in both PET and glass bottles, the level of phthalates was nearly 20 times higher in the PET bottles, according to a 2008 report in the journal Food Additives and Contaminants. That phthalates are introduced into the water from the PET bottles seems pretty clear given other studies showing gradually increasing levels of phthalates in water stored over weeks or months in PET, but not glass, containers.  Warmer storage temperatures and acidity, as in soda pop, seem to promote greater leaching of phthalates.

Study: Even “BPA-Free” Plastics Leach Endrocrine-Disrupting Chemicals

In a new study for the journal Environmental Health Perspectives, researchers found that most plastic products leach endocrine-disrupting chemicals—and that was true even for products labeled “BPA-free.” Scientists led by George Bittner, a neurobiologist at the University of Texas, looked at 455 common plastic products and found that 70% tested positive for estrogenic activity. Once those products were subject to real-world conditions—microwaving or dishwashing—that proportion rose to 95%. As the study concluded:

"In some cases, BPA-free products released chemicals having more EA (Estrogenic Activity) than BPA-containing products."

Breaking new research indicates that manufacturers throughout the world who were using the toxic hormone-disrupting chemical bisphenol A (BPA), may have simply switched to an equally toxic analogue in the same bisphenol chemical class known as bisphenol S (BPS), to evade regulatory oversight and trick consumers with their misleading "BPA-FREE!" labels....

How Safe Is BPS?

Not a lot of studies have been done, but preliminary research indicates that it may actually be WORSE than BPA! Here’s why. From the studies we have, it appears that BPS has about the same level of estrogenic activity. (source 1, source 2) So far, estrogenic activity of BPA has been linked to:

 

An Alphabetic Soup of Toxic Bisphenols In Consumer Goods

While BPA has received the most negative attention, often being labeled as "bisphenol" for short, the bisphenols are such a broad chemical class that they are identified pseudo-alphabetically, spanning letters A-Z:

Bisphenol A, Bisphenol AB, Bisphenol AF, Bisphenol B, Bisphenol BP, Bisphenol C, Bisphenol E, Bisphenol F, Bisphenol G, Bisphenol M, Bisphenol S, Bisphenol P, Bisphenol PH, Bisphenol TMC, Bisphenol Z

 

Components of plastic: experimental studies in animals and relevance for human health

Components used in plastics, such as phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), are detected in humans. In addition to their utility in plastics, an inadvertent characteristic of these chemicals is the ability to alter the endocrine system. Phthalates function as anti-androgens while the main action attributed to BPA is oestrogen-like activity. PBDE and TBBPA have been shown to disrupt thyroid hormone homeostasis while PBDEs also exhibit anti-androgen action. Experimental investigations in animals indicate a wide variety of effects associated with exposure to these compounds, causing concern regarding potential risk to human health. For example, the spectrum of effects following perinatal exposure of male rats to phthalates has remarkable similarities to the testicular dysgenesis syndrome in humans. Concentrations of BPA in the foetal mouse within the range of unconjugated BPA levels observed in human foetal blood have produced effects in animal experiments. Finally, thyroid hormones are essential for normal neurological development and reproductive function. Human body burdens of these chemicals are detected with high prevalence, and concentrations in young children, a group particularly sensitive to exogenous insults, are typically higher, indicating the need to decrease exposure to these compounds.

Ref - http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/364/1526/2079.abstract

 

 

Researchers who study endocrine disruption collected new data then scrutinized its effect on cells, animals and humans, to find BPA can cause health harm even in tiny doses.

A CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) study found 95% of adult human urine samples and 93% of samples in children had bisphenol A.

It is generally accepted that there is no safe level of exposure to chemicals in plastic.

BPA is used in polycarbonate plastic products such as refillable drinks containers, some plastic eating utensils and many other products in everyday use. It is one of the world's highest production volume chemicals, with over 2.2 million tonnes (6.4 billion pounds) produced annually. It is detectable in the bodies of more than 90% of the population.

BPA is an endocrine disruptor, which can mimic estrogen. It also binds to thyroid hormone receptor, can interfere with the reproductive system, and is linked to several types of cancer.

BPS has been identified as a general substitute for BPA in thermal paper and in European manufactured baby bottles. It is probably not the only substitute, and if that’s not enough to get your goat, a 2011 study found that many plastics (even those that are BPA-free) have estrogenic activity.

There is no end to the tricks that endocrine disruptors can play on our bodies: increasing production of certain hormones; decreasing production of others; imitating hormones; turning one hormone into another; interfering with hormone signaling; telling cells to die prematurely; competing with essential nutrients; binding to essential hormones; accumulating in organs that produce hormones.

Nearly 200 scientific studies show that exposures to low doses of BPA, particularly during prenatal development and early infancy, are associated with a wide range of adverse health effects in later life.

BPA is used to make polycarbonate plastic as well as food and beverage can liners and some paper receipts and dental sealants When you choose plastic you are potentially exposed to the following chemicals. More than 90 percent of Americans tested have traces of BPA in their bodies.

a recent test by the Canadians has found that a “BPA-free” label may not guarantee a BPA-free product.

New research has found a newer chemical used to replace BPA called bisphenol S, or BPS, acts similarly to hormone-disrupting BPA. 

BPA interferes with the body’s endocrine system, which regulates hormones. “The endocrine system can be triggered prenatally in terms of infant exposures through very low doses,” says Nudelman. “BPA in concentrations in the parts per billion or parts per trillion range can cross the placenta and alter the mammary glands of a developing fetus, predisposing that fetus to breast cancer later in life,” she says. Another advocacy group, the Environmental Working Group, has found that BPA exposure in the parts per billion range is low enough to interfere with cell development, which can lead to other chronic problems like obesity and diabetes; studies have linked BPA to both health problems.

Be skeptical of plastic. While No. 7 plastics are most likely to contain BPA or BPS, the truth is hormone-disrupting chemicals may be in all different types of plastic formulations.

“People automatically think low doses do less than high doses,” said Cheryl Watson, a University of Texas biochemistry professor and lead author of the study published in Environmental Health Perspectives. “But both natural hormones and unnatural ones like [BPS] can have effects at surprisingly low doses.”

Have you ever noticed how a re-used water bottle becomes brittle over time? That is because the phthalates have leached out of it - and you have drunk them.

One of the biggest concerns about BPA and phthalates is that they act as what scientists call ‘environmental oestrogens’, so-called because they mimic the hormone in our bodies.

Minuscule amounts can make an impact and many studies have found evidence that they affect the development of foetuses in the womb.

“We’re seeing effects in animals at very, very low concentrations and also seeing associations in a large number of epidemiological studies. -Linda Birnbaum, NIEHS  

Although initially considered to be a weak environmental estrogen, more recent studies have demonstrated that BPA may be similar in potency to estradiol in stimulating some cellular responses. Moreover, emerging evidence suggests that BPA may influence multiple endocrine-related pathways.

BPA – Bisphenol A or BPA is an estrogen-mimicking chemical that has been linked to a host of serious health problems including: Asthma, brain damage and development problems. prostate cancer, diabetes, endocrine-disruption, heart Disease in Woman, hormone system disruption, immune system problems, learning and behavioral problems in children, obesity, ovarian dysfunction, prostate gland problems, early puberty in girls, decreased sperm count and thyroid hormone level problems.

A few years ago, manufacturers of water bottles, food containers, and baby products had a big problem. A key ingredient of the plastics they used to make their merchandise, an organic compound called bisphenol A, had been linked by scientists to diabetes, asthma and cancer and altered prostate and neurological development. The FDA and state legislatures were considering action to restrict BPA's use, and the public
was pressuring retailers to remove BPA-containing items from their shelves.

The industry responded by creating "BPA-free" products, which were made from plastic containing a compound called bisphenol S. In addition to having similar names, BPA and BPS share a similar structure and versatility: BPS is now known to be used in everything from currency to thermal receipt paper, and widespread human exposure to BPS was confirmed in a 2012 analysis of urine samples taken in the U.S., Japan,
China and five other Asian countries. According to a study by University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston researchers, though, BPS also
resembles BPA in a more problematic way. Like BPA, the study found, BPS disrupts cellular responses to the hormone estrogen, changing patterns of cell growth and death and hormone release. Also like BPA, it does so at extremely low levels of exposure."Our studies show that BPS is active at femtomolar to picomolar concentrations just like endogenous hormones -- that's in the range of parts per trillion to quadrillion," said UTMB professor Cheryl Watson, senior author of a paper on the study now online in the advance publications section of Environmental
Health Perspectives. "Those are levels likely to be produced by BPS leaching from containers into their contents."

Bisphenol A (BPA) is a known endocrine disruptor that hijacks the normal responses of hormones. Yet, traditional toxicology studies indicate that only very high doses of this chemical affect exposed animals -- doses as high as 50 mg/kg/day. For the past decade, scientists have used modern scientific techniques to probe the effects of BPA on numerous endpoints that are not examined in those traditional toxicology studies. Examining these non-traditional endpoints reveal a very different story. Because of increased understanding of the mechanisms by which hormones and chemicals that mimic hormones work,

(BPA), an endocrine disrupting chemical used in some food and beverage containers, receipts, and dental sealants, has been associated with anxiety and hyperactivity in animal studies. A few human studies also show prenatal and childhood BPA exposure to be associated with behavior problems in children.

After numerous research studies raised questions over its safety, several states and countries began banning the sale of products containing bisphenol A (BPA), prompting companies in the plastics industry to begin producing products that were “BPA free.”

However, a new study from the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston (UTMB) shows that a widely used BPA substitute, bisphenol S (BPS), has the same negative effect as the original organic compound–blocking the cellular responses to the hormone estrogen.

 

Conclusion:

Bottled water is not an answer to the search for drinking water free of chemical pollutants.

 

 THINGS YOU CAN DO NOW:

• Use a stainless steel or glass bottle instead of plastic
• Use glass or stainless steel containers to store food
• Remove plastic from your kitchen as much as possible

 

 

Toxic Water Bottle

The law seems unable to make sure that the chemicals added to our consumer products are safe and unfortunately we don’t live in a world where profits are regularly put before human health

High-resolution Mass Spectrometer
High-resolution Mass Spectrometer

Plastic Bottles
Typically used to make bottles for soft drinks, water, juice, mouthwash, sports drinks and containers for condiments like ketchup, salad dressing, jelly and jam, PET is considered safe, but it actually leach the toxic chemicals, which is used during its manufacture.

BPS
In a new study for the journal Environmental Health Perspectives, researchers found that most plastic products leach endocrine-disrupting chemicals—and that was true even for products labeled “BPA-free.”

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